Computer-operated sculpture-making machines, or Scumaks, address automation and computerization in contemporary life and spark dialogue about the purpose of art and the artist.
Although he never molds the forms, Paine is ultimately the maker of these works, for he has programmed the computer to act on his behalf.

Roxy Paine, American (b. 1966). Scumak No. 2, 2001. Aluminum, computer, conveyor, electronics, extruder, stainless steel, polyethylene, Teflon. Copyright the artist. Courtesy James Cohan Gallery,
New York/Shanghai. Photo: Mitch Cope.